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Immunohistochemical markers: Carcinoembryonic antigen, p53, Ki-67, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen as prognostic factors for colorectal cancer

By
Siniša Maksimović ,
Siniša Maksimović

Faculty of Medicine, University of Banja Luka, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Branislava Jakovljević ,
Branislava Jakovljević

Faculty of Medicine, University of Banja Luka, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Zdenka Gojković ,
Zdenka Gojković

Clinic of Oncology, University clinical center of Republika Srpska, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Zlatko Maksimović
Zlatko Maksimović

Faculty of Medicine, Foca, The Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina, University of East Sarajevo, Lukavica, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Abstract

Introduction. There has been a progressive increase in the frequency of colorectal carcinoma for the last twenty years. In order for a doctor to estimate the life expectancy and/or the treatment of these patients, oncology makes use of prognostic and predictive factors. They are divided into: clinicosurgical, pathohistological and immunohistochemical markers. The aim of this study is to determine the significance of immunohistochemical markers such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), p53, Ki-67 as well as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) for predicting survival in patients with colorectal carcinoma. Methods. From 1st January 2010 to 1st December 2017, 484 patients with colorectal carcinoma who underwent analysis of immunohistochemical markers in carcinoma tissue (CEA, p53, Ki-67 and PCNA) were treated in Public Hospital "St Vračevi" in Bijeljina. Results. Immunohistochemical analysis of primary colorectal adenocarcinoma tissue showed a considerably high positive expression level of CEA in 301 (62%) patients, p53 in 329 (68%), PCNA in 314 and Ki-67 in 275 (56.8%) patients. Patients with a high positive expression of CEA, PCNA, and p53 had a statistically lower survival rate, compared to the patients with low CEA, PCNA and p53 expression score. There was no statistically significant difference in the survival of patients with a considerably high immunohistochemical Ki-67 expression score, compared to the ones with low score. Conclusion. Although immunohistochemical markers are useful predictors of survival in these patients, immunohistochemical analysis is not used for the routine examination of colorectal carcinoma.

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