Introduction. Anemia is an important public health problem recognized worldwide either as an isolated problem or associated with other forms of malnutrition. In 2016, the prevalence of anemia in women of reproductive age was 32.0%, that is 613 millions of women, aged 15-49 years. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of anemia among women of reproductive age (>15≤49 years) in the Republic of Srpska as well as to determine the correlation between dietary habits and prevalence of anemia. Methods. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional study. The sample was designed as a two-stage stratified random sample, with census circles selected during the first stage and households in the second stage. The study included 1539 women, aged 15-49 years. For the assessment of dietary habits and basic socio-demographic characteristics of the sample, two specially created questionnaires were used. Photometer, HemoCue Hb 301/SET was used to determine the hemoglobin level from a capillary sample. Results. The prevalence of anemia among women in reproductive age in the Republic of Srpska was 11.8%, classifying the Republic of Srpska into countries with low prevalence. There was a statistically significant difference in prevalence of anemia among women (p< 0.001), aged 36-49 years, and within Doboj and East Sarajevo Region (p = 0.002). Analyzing dietary habits, with special emphasis on intake of heme and non-heme iron foods, a statistically significant difference was found in intake of heme iron foods (p=0.009) among the women without anemia. There was a weak but statistically significant correlation between intake of iron supplement and absence of anemia (r = -0.064, p = 0.013). Conclusion. The Republic of Srpska falls into the category of countries with low anemia prevalence but it is necessary to continue with the activities the aim of which should be dietary habit improvement among all population groups, with the special emphasis on intake of heme iron foods.
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